Medicinal value of edible and medicinal mushrooms

SECTION 1 – EDIBLE MUSHROOMS

In addition to their nutritional value as many people know, edible mushrooms have much medicinal value.

Champignon mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

These mushrooms contain compound that inhibits activity of the aromatase enzyme, an enzyme linking with tumor growth. Such compound treats and prevents breast cancer. 

Enoki mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes)

Enoki mushrooms or bean sprouts mushrooms

There is always a change in the composition of these mushrooms due to growing medium. The water-soluble polysaccharide, which is Flammulina, defends from ascites tumor (sarcoma 180) and carcinoma with the rate of from 80 – 100%. Some studies in Japan express that those who grow enoki mushrooms in Nagano have very low rates of cancer compared with the community.

Shiitake mushrooms or fragrant mushrooms (Lentinula edodes)

Lentinan, which is a water-soluble polysaccharide and extracted from shiitake mushrooms, is an anti-cancer drug in Japan. Extracted by Fujiii and partners in 1978, an another high molecular weight polysaccharide (KS-2) also helps to anti sarcoma 180 and carcinoma. Eritadenine helps to reduce cholesterol level in blood.

Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)

The recent studies showed that grey oyster mushrooms contain lovastatin (a 3hydroxy3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase) which are used to treat excessive cholesterol level in blood as approved by Food and Drug Administration of United States (FDA). Lovastatin is more commonly found in mushroom caps than stems. It is also found in gills and especially in spores. Any mice which have sarcoma 180 apply the diet with 20% of oyster mushrooms will be protected from tumor more than the other with the rate of 20% after 1 month.

Straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea)

The scientific surveys show that straw mushrooms are rich in vitamin B, minerals and balancing amino acid. Recently, Vincent E.C.Ooi in 2002, a substance which is extracted straw mushrooms contains 10 kDa of molecular weight, helps to lower blood pressure and act as serotonin

Wood ear mushrooms (Auricularia polytricha)

Some studies express that wood ear mushroom extract defends from carcinoma and sarcoma 180 with the rate of 80 – 90%. The water-soluble polysaccharide extract of wood ear mushrooms reduce blood glucose level of mice having diabetes due to genetics. The water-insoluble glucan has molecular weight of 560,000-610,000 isolated from hot extract of mushroom caps which are against sarcoma 180 solid tumors in tubes. In addition, the polysaccharides extracted from wood ear mushrooms stimulate DNA and RNA synthesis due to the lymphocytes in tubes.

Snow mushrooms (Tremella fuciformis)

Polysaccharides of snow mushrooms, which are a heteropolysaccharide, include xylose, glucuronic acid, mannose and glucose which have anti-cancer properties. The extract from snow mushrooms protects liver cells from radiation damage and  it is also used to treat liver diseases. The polysaccharide and glycoprotein increase the effectiveness of interferon, a drug to treat hepatitis B.

Bearded tooth mushrooms (Hericium erinaceus)

Not only are they delicious edible mushrooms, bearded tooth mushrooms have main effects on stimulating the immune system, preventing from gastric cancer and metastatic lung cancer. Erinacin extracted from bearded tooth mushrooms is beneficial for stimulating neuron regeneration, especially treating senility and Alzheimer’s disease, improving memory, restoring nerve injury due to stroke, improving the way of stimulating muscular and cognitive function.

Almond mushrooms or mushrooms of the Sun (Agaricus brasiliensis)

Being first grown successfully in Vietnam, they are rich in protein and they have good medicinal value and delicious herb.

 (Cont.)

 Master Co Duc Trong

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