Enoki mushroom cultivation techniques

At present, there are some enoki mushroom cultivation facilities in Dong Nai (Vietnam). Compared to the other ones, enoki mushrooms give such high economic efficiency in spite of being difficult to grow. To grow enoki mushrooms successfully, we should comply with some technical process.

Enoki mushrooms or bean sprouts mushrooms

Enoki mushrooms are also known as bean sprouts mushrooms because they grow in clusters and have shapes like bean sprouts but with larger size. On the top of the mushrooms are caps. Mushroom caps are hemisphere – shaped when being premature, then they turn into the box-shaped. Mushroom caps are yellow and darker yellow in the middle. Stems are white or light yellow and light brown in the half bottom. Apart from the above ones, there is an enoki mushroom species which is absolutely white in cap and stem.

 1/ Prepare a house and growing medium

Enoki mushrooms are grown in a facility of Trang Bom District, Dong Nai – Vietnam

– Enoki mushrooms are suitable for low temperature so you should prepare a cold house if you want to grow them in high temperature and environment.

– Choose PP or PE bags which are 40x20cm in size and 0,05-0.06 mm thick. You can also use wide mouth glass bottles to grow enoki mushrooms. When using wide-mouth glass bottles, you need to prepare thin pieces, newspapers or cloths to cover the bottles before sterilizing (kill pathogens).

 2/ Mix the materials

The materials for growing enoki mushrooms are relatively various. They can be mung bean stems, peanut shells, rubber sawdust, hardwood sawdust, Bodhi tree sawdust, straw, corn core, bagasse or banana peels, etc.

 3/ Methods of mixing the materials

– Method 1: 77% of sawdust, 20% of rice bran, 1% of plaster, 1% of sugar, 1% of super phosphate. Add water at 60-70% humidity, pH 6,5.

– Method 2: 72% of minced straw, 20% of rice bran, 5% of corn flour, 1% of sugar, 1% of super phosphate, 1% of plaster. Add water at 60-70% humidity, pH 6,5.

Please note that sawdust is only used to grow enoki mushrooms when they are composted in piles after 3-6 months. In case you are in a hurry, they can be exposed to the sun and mixed with water after a few days.

4/ Methods of growing and caring

– Add the materials to thin plastic bags as you make growing bag of oyster mushroom, wood ear mushrooms either a manual or an automatic machine. Each bag should contain from 0.4 to 0.5 kg of materials. Leave about 20 cm in height on the top so that mushroom stems have space of growing. Flatten the surface of material bags and create a small hole, then use it to plant seeds. Make a round cotton pad to wrap the top thin layer around the cotton button. Then cover the top with a paper and tie with a plastic wire.

– Steam to kill pathogens discontinuously like the other mushrooms. Wait until cold at 250C and give it to seed growth chamber. One bottle of seeds can be used to plant for 30-40 bags. You need to use the bottles or bags of seeds whose white mycelium grows to the bottom instead of the other ones which are stored longer than 2 months.

– After planting the seeds to the bags, put those bags on the 1 metre wide wooden or bamboo shelf. Its length depends on the area of the room and each layer of the shelf is separated from 50 to 60cm. Maintain the temperature ranging between 20 and 230C. The mycelium will grow full of the bags after 20 – 30 days. The relative humidity in the mushroom growing rooms should be maintained about 80-90%.

– When the fruiting body are formed, the most suitable temperature is 130oC. Enoki mushrooms should not be grown at the temperature of over 160C.

– When the fruiting bodies grow, you need open the bags, keep the relative humidity about  80-85%, maintain the diffused light. Extending the top side of bags should comply with the rules that the bags are always 5 cm higher than fruiting bodies. Otherwise, the fruiting bodies will grow early and mushroom stews are short. When enoki mushroom stems gradually grow high, you should lower the relative humidity down to 75-80%, keep mushroom growing rooms dark from the fruiting bodies appear until harvesting.

5/ Harvesting

When mushroom stems are 15cm long, you can harvest in the first phase. After collecting mushrooms, pull the bags up the surface about 2cm, maintain the temperature of about 130C. Only after about 3-4 days, the fruiting bodies will appear in the second phase. The entire growing period lasts about 75-90 days.

Apart from the method of making mushrooms grow from one side of bags, there is another method which make the enoki mushrooms grow from two sides. Then, add the materials to the long tubes, make cotton button at two sides and put the mushroom bags on the shelves.

Translated by Hoang Oanh –  According to Dong Nai Newspaper

Document File: How to grow Enoki Mushrooms

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